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is not a Man… (23:19):
Blessing and Betrayal at the Plains of Moav
Rav Chanoch Waxman
At the end of their forty year
journey through the desert, the Children of Israel finally arrived at the last
stop. The final verse of Parashat Chukat informs us that the people encamped on the
Plains of Moav, just on the other side of the Jordan
River from the city of Jericho (21:35). While their wanderings have ended and
the stage has been set for entering into the land, much will yet occur before
the crossing of the Jordan.
Many crucial events will happen on
the Plains of Moav. The people will sin with the
daughters of Moav, and Pinchas
will rise to prominence (25:1-18). The people will be counted in preparation
for conquering and dividing the land (26:1-27:11), and Yehoshua
will be appointed leader (27:12-23). In point of fact, the Plains of Moav constitutes the physical setting for the remainder of
the Torah, the environment of the various events that comprise the remainder of
the Book of Bamidbar, and the context of the
last words of Moshe that comprise the Book of Devarim.
It is the departure point for the last stage of the Torah and the cusp of the
people's imminent entrance into the Land
Nevertheless, immediately after the
arrival of the Children of Israel at the Plains of Moav,
the Torah seems to veer away from the topic at hand. Before picking up the
story of the Children of Israel, the saga of Moshe and the events at Arvot Moav the Torah chooses to
teach us the story of Balak and Bilam,
the attempt by Moav and Midyan
to curse the Children of Israel (22:1-24:25). The dialogue of Bilam and his donkey is entertaining, the passages
depicting the palpable frustration of Balak are
enjoyable, and the reaction of the local inhabitants to the Israelite invasion
is informative. Yet the reader cannot fail to be struck by a sense of interlude,
as if the Torah has switched topics. In fact, in discussing the authorship of
the texts that make up the canon, the Gemara
in Bava Batra 14b
states that Moshe wrote "his book" and Parashat
Bilam. In some sense, the story of Balak and Bilam, known by the Gemara as Parashat Bilam, stands apart. It is different than the
surrounding material and strikes us not necessarily an organic and natural part
of the larger narrative. While written by Moshe, it is other than standard Torat Moshe, or the rest of Sefer Bamidbar.
To put this slightly differently, in
the broadest sense, the narrative flow of the Torah can be defined as the saga
of the relationship between God and those he has chosen, the forefathers, Moshe
and the people of Israel.
It is the story of God's promises, his revelation, and the trials and travails
of his chosen people. Sefer Bamidbar constitutes a particular piece of this
history, the story of the journey through the desert to the Promised Land and
the transition from one generation to another. From this perspective, we may
well wonder why the Torah inserts the story of Balak
and Bilam here in Sefer
Bamidbar. It is not about the travels and travails
of the people or their relationship with the Divine. It is not law, and it is
not crucial to the obvious themes of the book. If so, why indeed does the Torah
bother with the story of Parashat Bilam? What is the point of its presence in Sefer Bamidbar?
Let us try to complicate matters a
bit more. Turning our attention to some of the details of the Bilam story should unearth some additional interesting
issues and some unexpected connections between the Bilam
story and other parts of the Torah.
Upon receiving divine permission to
accompany the emissaries of Moav, Bilam
"got up in the morning," "saddled his donkey" and set off
with Balak's men (22:21). Commenting on this verse, a
series of Midrashim (Midrash
Tanchuma Balak 8, Midrash Aggada 14:5),
synthesized here by Rashi (22:21), draw a connection
to the Avraham narrative. Just as Bilam
"got up in the morning (va-yakam Bilam ba-boker)"
(22:21), so too Avraham, on his way to sacrifice Yitzchak, "rose up in
the morning (va-yashkeim Avraham ba-boker)" (Bereishit
22:3). Similarly, just as Bilam "saddled
his donkey (va-yachavosh et
atono)," so too, in that very same story,
Avraham "saddled his donkey (va-yachavosh
et chamoro)" (Bereishit
22:3). While the terms used to describe the acts of rising, as well as the
terms for donkey, vary between the two stories, the clear thematic overlap
impressed the Midrash.
Commenting on the verses, the Midrash presents the theory that strong emotion, whether
love or hate, distorts the normal order of things. As a person of status,
Avraham should have waited for his servants to saddle his donkey. Yet his love
for God and his zealousness to perform the divine command distort the normal
order of things. He rises early and saddles his donkey by himself. As a person of
status, Bilam should have waited for his servants to
saddle his donkey. Yet his hatred of Israel and his eagerness to curse
them distort the normal order of things. He rises early and saddles his donkey
by himself. In addition, the Midrash exploits the opportunity of the textual overlap to
have God make a derogatory comment regarding Bilam.
According to the Midrash, upon seeing Bilam rise early and saddle his donkey, God refers to Bilam as an evildoer, who has already been preceded in
rising early and saddling a donkey by Avraham. Apparently, Bilam
is not much when compared to Avraham.
While the ideological points made by
the Midrash seem relatively straightforward, the
textual claim of the Midrash demands further
elaboration. In point of fact, the dual parallel noted by the Midrash constitutes but part of an elaborate parallel
between the Bilam story and the Akeida
narrative. On closer analysis, the story of Bilam's
journey to Moav echoes the Akeida
on numerous levels. First and foremost, in addition to the dual parallel of
"rising/getting up in the morning" and "saddling the
donkey" noted above, both stories begin with a divine command, signified
by the word "go." Just as Avraham is commanded by God "lekh," to go to the land of Moriah
(Bereishit 22:2), so too, Bilam
is commanded by God "lekh," to
accompany the officers of Moav, (22:20).
In addition, on their respective
journeys, both Avraham and Bilam are each accompanied
by "two of his young men (shenei ne'arav)" (Bereishit
22:3, Bamidbar 22:22), a formulation found
nowhere else in the Torah. Likewise, in a fifth point of parallel, both stories
contain "an angel of the Lord" sent by God to disrupt the intention
of the respective principal actors of each story. An "angel of the Lord"
interferes at the last moment and prevents Avraham from fulfilling what he
perceives as the point of his journey, the sacrifice of Yitzchak (Bereishit 22:11-12). Likewise, an "angel of the
Lord" interferes with Bilam's journey in order
to remind him to speak naught but what God tells him to speak, i.e. to prevent Bilam from attempting to curse the Children of Israel, what
he perceives as the point of his journey (22:25).
Finally, in both stories the
symbolism of vision plays a key role. Vision serves as a central motif in each
story and plays a central role in the successful resolution of the central
conflict of each journey. In the Akeida story,
Avraham first lifts up his eyes and "sees" his hitherto unknown and
unnamed destination from afar (Bereishit
22:4). The exact same conjunction of lifting up his eyes and seeing provides
the resolution of the story. After the call of the angel, Avraham lifts up his
eyes and "sees" a ram entangled in a thicket (Bereishit
22:13). His perception allows him to substitute for Yitzchak, thereby
fulfilling the original divine command to offer a sacrifice and yet to emerge
with his son unscathed. Similarly, "seeing" plays a key role in the Bilam story. The conflict between Bilam
and his donkey ensues precisely because of what the donkey "sees." It
sees the angel of the Lord and its outstretched sword, the threat of death that
threatens Bilam's journey (22:23-27). Once again
"seeing," or perception, provides the key to resolution. When Bilam "sees" the angel (22:31), conversation
ensues, the conflict is resolved and the journey continues (22:32-35).
While the Midrash
was certainly correct in linking the story of Bilam's
journey with the Akeida narrative, something more
than just an incidental point about the dynamics of love and hate seems to
stand behind the connection. Alternatively, while Avraham is certainly
righteous and Bilam is certainly less than righteous,
something other than an opportunity to insult Bilam
should stand behind the connection. To put this slightly differently, what constitutes
the deeper point, if any does in fact exist, behind the parallel between the
Torah's telling of the Akeida and its structuring of
the Bilam journey story?
Although we have concentrated our
attention until this point on the Akeida echoes found
in the Bilam journey narrative (22:20-35), the
connections between Avraham and Bilam are in fact a
bit broader. In fact, they seem to have quite a bit in common. For starters,
they both come from the same hometown.
In introducing Bilam,
the Torah states that Balak sent messengers to "Petor which is on the river" (22:5). In addition, in a
somewhat unusual formulation probably connoting birthplace or homeland, the
Torah specifies that Bilam was summoned from
"the land of his people" (see Ramban 22:5).
While Petor on the river may be somewhat of a
mysterious place to the reader, Devarim 23:5
identifies Petor as Petor
Aram Naharayim. Petor on
the rivers is either another name for Aram Naharayim,
or a particular place in the general locale of Aram Naharayim,
an area along the Euphrates river.
Either way, this area is the homeland of Avraham, or at the very least, the
location of his clan and the starting point of his journey to Canaan.
In commanding his servant to seek a wife for his son Yitzchak, Avraham forbids
his servant to select a wife from amongst the local Canaanite women and
mandates the servant to conduct his search in Avraham's
"land and birthplace" (Bereishit
24:3-4). A few verses later, the servant promptly picks up and heads off to
Aram Naharayim, the city of Nahor (Bereishit 24:10), the brother of Avraham.
In this light, Aram Naharayim, either as particular or general locale,
comprises the "land and birthplace" that Avraham was commanded to
abandon at the start of his journey to Canaan
(Bereishit 12:1). In other words, the Torah
identifies both Avraham and Bilam as coming from the
same geographic area. They both have roots in Aram, the joint land of their
peoples. They may in fact even be of the same "people." Moreover,
both depart on a journey from that place in the direction of Canaan.
In sum, the place/people parallel of Avraham and Bilam
should make us realize that Bilam's journey doesn't
only parallel the Akeida story. Rather, in a certain
sense, it also sends us back to the beginning of the Avraham narrative. Avraham
had once traveled from his land and family in Aram Naharayim in the direction of Canaan.
So too Bilam, in a bizarre echo of that journey, now
travels from his land and family in Aram Naharayim in
the direction of Canaan. What Avraham does in Sefer Bereishit
finds its echo in the identification and journey of Bilam
in Sefer Bamidbar.
In addition, the introduction of Bilam contains another striking reference to the
introductory segments of the Avraham narrative. In requesting of Bilam to curse "the people that has left Egypt"
(22:5), Balak reveals the rationale as to why he has
chosen to recruit Bilam. In a carefully formulated
message, part recruitment pitch and part flattery, Balak
states: "For I know he whom you bless shall be blessed and he whom you
curse shall be cursed" (22:6). Bilam's
international reputation consists of having the power of blessing and cursing.
These alternate possible statuses depend upon relation to Bilam.
He who stands in relation x, that of being blessed by Bilam,
shall be blessed, and he who stands in relation y, that of being cursed by Bilam, shall be cursed.
Parsing the four-termed
blessing-cursing attribute of Bilam in this manner
should summon up the divine promise to Avraham way back when. As part of the
original divine promise, God informs Avraham that "I will bless he who
blesses you and curse he who curses you" (Bereishit
12:3). In a certain sense, in this four-termed blessing-cursing declaration,
God promises Avraham the power of blessing and cursing. The alternate possible
statuses of blessedness and cursedness depend on standing in a particular
relation to Avraham and the nation destined to descend from him. He who stands
in relation x, that of blessing Avraham, shall be blessed. He who stands in
relation y, that of cursing Avraham and/or his
descendants shall be cursed. In sum, Bilam resembles
Avraham not just in his origin or his journey, but also in his supposed power,
the power of divine blessedness or cursedness.
This brings us to a bit of an
impasse. While the links between Bilam and Avraham
seem relatively clear, the meaning of the connections seems rather obscure.
After all, Bilam is not Avraham. He is not the father
of future generations, he does not faithfully follow after God's word to Canaan
to found a new nation, he does not build altars to God's name to preach the
faith, and he is certainly not the knight of faith willing to sacrifice even
his own son on God's command. But if so, what purpose does the Torah achieve by
paralleling Bilam with Avraham? What lesson is taught
by structuring these connections between Bilam and
Avraham? What can possibly constitute the meaning of such a parallel?
In mapping out the overlaps between
the Bilam story and the Avraham narrative, our
analysis took us both to the Akeida and to the
beginnings of the Avraham narrative, the story of Lekh
Lekha. In fact, these two stories stand in an
interesting relation to each other. Suffice it to say that both originate in
God's command of lekh lekha.
In parallel to God's original command to leave his land and birthplace to
"go" to a land as yet unspecified (Bereishit
12:1), in the Akeida narrative, God commands Avraham
to "go" to the Land of Moriah, to a place
as yet unspecified (Bereishit 22:2). Both
stories involve a particular makom, or place (Bereishit 12:6, 22:3-4, 9). Both involve altars (Bereishit 12:7-8, 22:9), and both involve
revelation, in the terminology of the text, the appearance of the Lord (Bereishit 12:7, 22:14).
Finally, and most critically, both
involve, and reach their conceptual end, in a divine promise. In the first lekh lekha story,
upon his reaching the land, God appears to Avraham and promises him that
"to your descendants I will give this land" (Bereishit
12:7). Likewise, in the Akeida narrative, the story
reaches its conceptual peak, if not its dramatic height, at the end of the
story with the renewal or expansion of a divine promise. The angel speaks a
second time and informs Avraham that as a reward for his obedience he will be
blessed, his children will be greatly multiplied, they will be a blessing for
all the nations of the earth, and in a new twist, that "they shall possess
the gates of their enemies" (Bereishit
While it remains beyond the scope of
our analysis to fully explicate the import of the lekh
parallel and the structure of the Avraham narrative, on the simplest level the
two stories serve as a frame for the Torah's telling of the Avraham story. On a
slightly deeper level, the second lekh lekha, the Akeida,
constitutes the culmination of Avraham's story that
began with the first lekh lekha. It constitutes the last of the famed tests he
undergoes and the highpoint of his religious journey. But as just emphasized,
it also constitutes the final cause and final sealing of the divine promises to
Avraham. For his obedience, Avraham's descendants are
blessed. As reward for his journey Avraham's children
multiply beyond count, they inherit the land and "possess the gates of
All this should shed some light on
the Avraham echoes found in the Bilam narrative. As
mentioned above, the story of Balak and Bilam occurs, and the Torah chooses to report the
happenings of Parashat Bilam,
immediately upon the arrival of the Children of Israel at Arvot
Moav, their last stop on their desert journey, the
setting for the remainder of the Torah and the jumping-off point for entering
the Land. By building the Avraham imagery into the story of Bilam,
and by sending us back to Sefer Bereishit, the Torah emphasizes and deepens the meaning
of the context. The Children of Israel stand upon the cusp of the fulfillment of the divine promise to Avraham. It is by
virtue of that promise that they are about to enter the land. The moment is
momentous, the privilege is historic and the stakes incredibly high. The divine
promise is about to come true. This moment constitutes a crucial instant in the
overall plot of the Torah and the particular plot of Sefer
But there is more to it than just
marking the context. Returning to some of the details of the Bilam narrative and the Avraham-Bilam
parallel should help unpack an additional point or two.
As mentioned earlier, the story
begins with Balak's attempt to contract Bilam to curse the Children of Israel. Balak
requests that Bilam "please come (lekha)" and "curse for me (ara li)"
this people (22:6). Balak hopes that with Bilam's aid and the placing of a curse upon the people,
"that perhaps we may smite them and drive them from the LAND" (22:6).
In other words, from the perspective of we the readers, Balak
intends, albeit without being aware of such, that the prospective journey of Bilam embodied in his request of "come/lekha" will reverse the outcome of Avraham's twice traveled journey
of lekh lekha.
This requires a bit of clarification.
Although not mentioned previously
the term and idea of "blessing," connoted by the stem b.r.kh and constituting the conceptual opposite of
"curse," forms a central motif of God's original command of lekh lekha. The
first three verses of the opening of the Avraham story use the term five times.
To refresh our memory, the series of promises made to Avraham reads as follows:
will make you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name
great and you shall be a blessing. And I will bless him that blesses
you and curse him that curses you and in you shall all the families of the
earth be blessed. (Bereishit 12:2-3).
By virtue of Avraham's trips, his descendants were promised blessing and
blessedness, the land (Bereishit 12:7) and the
vanquishing of their enemies (Bereishit
22:17). In urging Bilam to curse the descendants of
Avraham in order to defeat them and vanquish them from the land, Balak stands against God's promises to Avraham and the
unfolding historical reality forged by Avraham's
The clash fostered between the
divine promise to Avraham regarding the power of blessedness and cursedness and
Balak's assignation of that very power to Bilam further strengthens this interpretation. Avraham's actions establish a reality in which not only are
his descendants blessed, but those who bless them are blessed, and those who
attempt to curse them not only fail, but are they themselves cursed. But as
mentioned earlier Balak justifies his request of Bilam with the claim that Bilam
possesses the power of blessing and cursing, "For I know that he whom you
bless is blessed and he whom you curse is cursed" (22:6). From Balak's perspective, it is not the case that an attempted
curse will rebound upon the curser. Rather with Bilam
as the curser, the curse will stick and reverse the status of
"blessedness" established by Avraham and his journey.
But of course, Balak's
attempt to thwart the realization of the destiny forged by Avraham's
journey is doomed to failure. God responds to Bilam's
first request to accompany the emissaries of Moav
with the clear statement "not to go (tailaikh)
with them and not to curse the people for they are blessed" (22:12). In
other words, the original status established by God's promise to Avraham stands
and will not be changed.
Similarly, by the end of the third
attempt to curse the Children of Israel, in a clear echo of the divine promise to
Avraham, Bilam is forced to admit regarding Israel
that "blessed is he that blesses you and cursed is he that curses
Finally, in line with the
blessing/curse theme of the text and unstoppable power of the original blessing
established for Israel, the key term for curse that appears in both the Avraham
narrative (Bereishit 12:3) and the Bilam narrative, the stem a.r.h.
appears seven times in the Bilam-Balak story
(22:6,6,6,12, 23:7, 24:9,9). By no accident, the term for
blessing and the conceptual opposite of "curse," the root b.r.ch.
appears fourteen times in the Bilam narrative
(22:6,6,12, 23:11,11,20,20,25,25, 24:1,9,9,10,10), exactly twice the number of
times that the term for curse appears. The power of Avraham's
blessing outweighs the attempt to curse. Balak's plot
is doomed to failure.
This brings us back to the Avraham
imagery that the Torah weaves into Parashat
Bilam, the Akeida
parallels and the echoes of Avraham's first lekh lekha journey.
On both the literary plain, and from the perspective of Balak,
Bilam constitutes an anti-Avraham. He is not really
like Avraham. He does not faithfully follow after God to the land to build a
new nation, nor does he journey to the mountain to make the ultimate sacrifice.
Rather he stands to thwart the divine promises that result from these promises.
The imagery serves to set Bilam as a foil for Avraham
and to bring the Avraham narrative into the context of Sefer
Bamidbar. While Balak
may well have contracted an anti-Avraham, from the same place and supposedly
possessing the same powers, to reverse the divine promises and blessedness
granted to Avraham, this project is doomed to failure. Avraham has already made
his journeys, and blessedness has been established. In the pithy words of God
to Bilam on the first night the emissaries of Moav stayed over: "For they are blessed" (22:12).
The power of Avraham, the power of his commitment and the power of his
covenantal relationship with God, outweighs the power of Bilam,
of any anti-Avraham, or attempt to curse the Children of Israel.
To return to the original Midrash we began with, in drawing the connection between
the Bilam narrative and the story of the Akeida, the Midrash castigates Bilam. According to the Midrash,
upon seeing Bilam rise early and saddle his donkey,
God states: "Evildoer, Avraham has already preceded you." But this is
far more than just a mocking of Bilam. Avraham has
already preceded Bilam or any other anti-Avraham.
Nothing can match his merits and the blessedness cannot be reversed.
Let us return to the question we
began with. By now, we should no longer need to wonder regarding the inclusion
of Parashat Bilam
in the Torah or its placement at this particular juncture in Sefer Bamidbar. The
story is not just about Moav and Midyan,
Balak and Bilam, talking
donkeys or the like. Rather the story is also about the power of the covenant
established by Avraham's actions, the merit of the
forefathers and the eternal blessing established for Israel. It is about the
justification by which they receive the land. As such, it appears at this
particular juncture, at Arvot Moav,
the last stop on the desert journey, as the Children of Israel begin their
preparations for entering the land.
Yet there is more to it than this.
On a certain plane, the story of Balak and Bilam's attempt to curse the people is not just about
Avraham and the past, but also about the present. It is not just about Avraham,
but also about God and the Children of Israel here and now at Arvot Moav. In order to explain this
point, let us return to some of the details of the narrative.
third attempt at cursing the Children of Israel results in an extensive
blessing (24:1-9) and an admission to the blessings of Avraham (24:9), Balak is understandably frustrated. In a fit of anger he
castigates Bilam for having blessed his enemies three
times (24:10). In other words, he accuses him of betrayal. He had promised Bilam "great honor"
(22:17, 37). While Bilam had piously insisted that he
can speak naught but that which God tells him (22:18,38,
23:12,26), both knew this was a bluff. After all, they had negotiated about a
"house full of gold and silver" (22:18). Bilam
had invited the second set of messengers to stay over after God's first refusal
(22:19), and Bilam had come along for the obvious
purpose of fulfilling Balak's agenda. In other words,
Balak accuses Bilam of
breaking their deal, of betrayal and disloyalty.
In point of fact, the themes of deal
breaking, loyalty, betrayal and treachery figure prominently in the narrative. Bilam is explicitly told by God not to go and not to curse
the people, for they are blessed (22:12). Yet Bilam
is not loyal to the word and desire of God. Upon the return of the officers of Moav, he hints at a price, the metaphorical house full of
gold and silver, and invites the officers to stay over another night; perhaps
things will be different this time (22:18-19, Ibn
Ezra 22:19, Rashi 22:18). In other words, Bilam seems to have his own agenda.
This sense of divergent agendas is further
reinforced as the narrative moves forward. After God grants permission to
accompany the officers of Moav on the condition that Bilam speak naught but what God tells him to (22:20), Bilam rises early, saddles his donkey and "goes"
with the officers of Moav. At this point, the Torah
describes God as "becoming angry." God sends an angel to block Bilam's path (22:22). But this seems inexplicable. God has
just commanded him to go. Apparently, Bilam has gone
for a different reason than that commanded by God. He has truly gone
"with" the officers of Moav, for their
purposes and their agenda (Rashi 22:21-22).
In other words, Bilam
is treacherous. While he says one thing, he intends another. He is disloyal,
and he attempts to betray God. He sells out for a house full of gold and
silver. He is a harlot, a prophet for sale. Balak is
right to accuse Bilam of treachery. But his true
treachery is not vis
a vis Balak, it is vis a vis God and
God's stated agenda.
treachery contrasts with the actions of another central character in the Bilam narrative. At the beginning of his second poem and
prophecy, Bilam contrasts the ways of God with the
ways of man.
not a man that he should break his word, nor the son of man that will change
his mind. That one will say and not do, he will speak
but not perform. Behold, blessed they are when I am taken, and blessed (they
remain), I cannot reverse it. (23:19-20)
Unlike man in
general, and Bilam in particular, God is loyal. He
keeps His word and does not change his mind. Consequently, as He had previously
blessed the Children of Israel, He will not retract His word; He will not
reverse the blessing. God does not engage in treachery.
But there is more to it than this. In
preparation for his various curse attempts and prophecies, Bilam
instructs Balak to construct seven altars and bring
sacrifices (23:1, 23:14, 23:29). In first entering into the prophetic state, Bilam declares to God that he has "prepared the seven
altars and offered a bull and ram upon each altar" (23:4). Apparently, Bilam attempts to bribe God. God is meant to be impressed
or pleased by the manifold altars and offerings. It is the equivalent of Bilam's own metaphorical "house of gold and
silver." God is meant to be seduced by the offerings and consent to curse
the people of Israel.
But God is not a harlot. He cannot be seduced, not by offerings nor Bilam's sweet talk. He will not betray His covenant, He
will not commit treachery, He will not change His mind, and He will not curse
the Children of Israel, no matter what the circumstances.
This of course is the gloss given to
the events by Moshe. In recounting the story in Sefer
Devarim, Moshe tells the people that God
"would not listen to Bilam" (23:6). He
turned the curse into a blessing, "for the Lord your God loves you"
(23:6). It is God's loyalty and love for Israel that constitute the central
dynamic of the story.
This last point, the love of God for
brings us to the last character in the Balak-Bilam
story, what might be thought of as the "silent" or
"missing" character. At Arvot Moav, God refuses to be seduced and remains loyal to the
covenant, His promises to Avraham and His relationship with the Children of
Israel. But what of the Children of Israel, are they loyal or are they
treacherous? Do they truly deserve God's fidelity, constancy and blessing?
This brings us to the final point on
the loyalty-treachery axis, yet one more contrast. But rather than contrasting
the character and actions of Bilam and God at Arvot Moav, we must contrast the
character and actions of Israel
and God at Arvot Moav.
Immediately following the Balak-Bilam narrative, what we termed Parashat
Bilam, (22:1-24:25), the Torah reports the sad
events of the next occurrence at Arvot Moav.
And Israel dwelt at
Shittim and the people began to commit harlotry with
the daughters of Moav. And they called to the people
to sacrifices of their gods and the people ate, and bowed down to their
Unlike God, the
people cannot resist the temptations of Moav. They
cannot remain loyal to the covenant; they commit harlotry both with foreign
women and foreign Gods. They are seduced, and they commit treachery.
To close the circle, even at Arvot Moav, on the cusp of
entering the land, the people betray the covenant. They commit adultery, in
both the physical and metaphorical senses of the word. They are disloyal and
betray God. They are Bilam, or even worse than Bilam. They don't truly deserve to enter the land. But this
is not the point, at least not the only point.
In fact, the juxtaposition of the
two stories, the story of Balak-Bilam (22:1-24:25)
and the story of the adultery with the daughters of Moav
(25:1-9), seems intended to make a different point all together. The
conjunction between the two stories and the implicit contrast of God and Israel should
be seen as providing new insight into the inclusion of Parashat
Bilam in the Torah and its placement here in Bamidbar as the Children of Israel stand poised to
enter the land.
Despite their momentary slip and
their treachery, the people are protected by God's promise to Avraham. They are
protected by the blessing given by God to Avraham. Most importantly, they are
protected by virtue of God's loyalty and fidelity to His word, His blessing and
His people. As Bilam himself was forced to phrase it:
not a man that he should break his word, nor the son
of man and change his mind…Behold, blessed they are…and…I cannot reverse it.
Come what may, God
remains loyal, and His blessing remains with the people.
1. See 23:1-4, 23:14-15 and 23:29-30. Now
see 25:1-2. Also see Shemot 32:4-8. Try to
explain the connections in light of the shiur above.
See Ramban and Ibn Ezra
24:1. Now contrast with Rashi 23:4 s.v. et shiv'at. Analyze Rashi in
light of the shiur above.
2. Review Bereishit
22:1-19. Pay careful attention to the role of "seeing" in the story.
Now see Bamidbar 24:3-4 and 24:15-16. What is Bilam's self image? Now see 22:21-35 while paying careful
attention to the idea of "seeing." See Rashi
22:29 and 22:34. How accurate is Bilam's self image?
Try to figure out the relationship between obedience and vision/revelation
suggested by comparing the Bilam/donkey and Akeida stories. Also see Mishna Avot 5:19.
3. Bilam and
Moshe are sometimes compared in Rabbinic literature. (See Bamidbar Rabba 20 and Devarim
Rabba 1). Look at 22:8. See Rashi 22:8. Now see 12:6-8. Review 22:3-4, 15-16 and 22:21-35
as well as the issue of Bilam's loyalty discussed in
the shiur above. Look at 12:7-8 again. Try to
differentiate between Moshe and Bilam in two
different ways. For another connection see Bamidbar
22:23-27 and 20:11-12. Does this shed any light on Moshe's actions at Mei Meriva?
4. See Bamidbar
31:14-16. Now see Rashi, Ibn
Ezra and Ramban 25:1. Try to delineate how each
explains the connection of 22:1-24:25 and 25:1-9? Can you expand Rashi's notion of the "advice of Bilam"
based upon the shiur above?