Your Camp that I Dwell Within
By Rav Yair Kahn
I. A Break in the Narrative
As we noted in last week's shiur, Sefer Bamidbar opens with the
establishment of "machane Yisrael" (the Israelite camp) in the
wilderness, in preparation for their epic journey towards Eretz Yisrael. The documentation is comprehensive,
describing in minute detail the various aspects of the "machane:" the
nation's groups and subgroups and its religious and political leadership. This
account is followed by the various acts and preparations which lead up to the
actual journey (10:11).
In Parashat Naso, we find a departure from this theme, as the Torah
records several halakhic sections.
The first, which deals with the expulsion of the ritually impure from the
machane, is thematically consistent, as it deals with the respective
sanctity of the various subdivisions within the machane. Furthermore, it is part of the
narrative, as the Torah describes that Yisrael actually implement this law
(5:4). However, the location of the subsequent halakhic sections in Parashat
Naso, which deal with the laws of kofer be-pikadon (disavowing a
monetary obligation), sota (the suspected adulteress), and nazir
(the nazirite), is baffling. These "ill-placed" laws seem to fracture the
thematic flow of the beginning of Sefer Bamidbar.
The problem deepens in light of the fact that Sefer Bamidbar is
essentially narrative; there are very few halakhic sections. The Ramban writes in his introduction
to the sefer: "There are no commandments for all generations in this
sefer, aside from a few regarding sacrifices which remain from Sefer
Vayikra." The Ramban clearly characterizes Sefer Bamidbar in general
as narrative. Even were we to adopt
his solution for the existence of uncharacteristic halakhic elements in
Bamidbar, we would remain troubled by the specific location within the
sefer. This is especially puzzling regarding parashat Naso, where
these commandments are thrust so haphazardly into the midst of the preparations
preceding the journey.
The location of the other halakhic sections found in Sefer Bamidbar seems
obvious. Following the Korach
affair, which included a challenge to the institutions of kehuna
(priesthood) and leviya (levite service), the Torah introduces the laws
of teruma and ma'aser (priestly gifts and tithes), apparently with
the intention of firmly establishing those institutions. The devastating decree in the wake of
the incident of the spies is followed by halakhic material implicitly promising
a brighter future when Bnei Yisrael will eventually enter the
promised land (see Rashi, Bamidbar 15:2). In general, it appears that
halakhic sections are introduced in Sefer Bamidbar as part of the
Although the narrative message of the halakhic sections is less obvious in our
parasha, we will nevertheless employ the same method. We will try to weave the halakhic
segments of Naso (kofer be-pikadon, sota, and nazir)
into the narrative fabric of Sefer Bamidbar and attempt to uncover their
II. The Kohen and Civil Disputes
We will begin with kofer be-pikadon, the laws of one who falsely denies a
monetary obligation and subsequently takes an oath of denial. The Torah
obligates this person to pay back his debt along with a twenty percent fine. In addition, he must bring an
asham sacrifice in order to attain atonement.
When approaching this section, we are faced with an additional difficulty
– the laws of kofer be-pikadon already appear in Sefer Vayikra
(5:20-26). Thus, not only must we
explain the location of this segment, but justify its very existence as well.
closer examination of the two segments reveals an aspect mentioned in
Parashat Naso that was totally ignored in Vayikra. In Naso,
there is mention of the specific case of "gezel ha-ger," when no one
inherits the deceased creditor and there is therefore no one to claim the
outstanding debt. In such a case, the money is given to the kohanim. The
continuation of this section (verses 9-10) clearly indicates that the focus is
the payment to the kohen and not the preceding section that focuses on
denial of debt:
And every heave-offering of all the holy things of Bnei Yisrael,
which they present unto the priest, shall be his.
And every man's hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever
any man gives the priest, it shall be his.
In fact, it appears that the case of kofer be-pikadon when there is no
inheritor is mentioned in our parasha only because it is a situation in
which we award the money to a kohen.
However, considering gezel ha-ger as an example of "matanot kehuna"
(priestly gifts) is rather odd. Most matanot kehuna are given due to the
item's special or consecrated status (as in the cases of teruma,
first-fruits, firstborn animals, portions of the sacrifices, etc.). In this
unique case, we are discussing stolen property that, due to lack of a claimant,
is given to the kohen by default.
What is the basis for this singular halakha?
In my opinion, this parasha is an expression of an important idea
concerning the role of the kohen and his involvement in civil disputes. The kohen, who personifies the
"machane Shekhina" (divine camp), should not limit his concerns to the
narrow confines of worship in the Mishkan.
Although the Mishkan is his responsibility, his role extends
beyond its geographical and spiritual borders. The kohen, as the
representative of an ideal state of sanctity and purity, must also be involved
in, and thereby influence, the ordinary affairs of the common man. There is no
dichotomy in Judaism between civil matters and religious concerns. Therefore,
the kohen, despite his involvement with lofty religious issues, must
nevertheless be concerned with the mundane affairs of society.
Not only must the "spiritual representative" involve himself in civil matters,
but civil matters should not be divorced from religious affairs. Thus, the debt owed the ger is
not perceived only in monetary categories and does not dissolve if there is no
claimant. With the death of the
ger, the ethical debt must still be paid, and according to the Torah, the
check should be made out to a kohen.
In more general terms, the unique halakha of gezel ha-ger is an
expression of the relationship and interaction between the machane Shekhina
and machane Yisrael. When
considered in these terms, this parasha flows naturally and smoothly from
the opening of Sefer Bamidbar, which, as we mentioned, deals with the
establishment of machane Yisrael and its various subdivisions. The Torah explicitly demands a
separate census for the Levi’im, and it is clear that the Kohanim
are also detached from the rest of the nation. This halakhic section outlines a
more subtle and complex relationship between the Kohanim and the rest of
III. Domestic Relations
In the parasha of sota, we have a similar expression of the
kohen's involvement in issues pertaining to machane Yisrael. While gezel ha-ger deals with
civil disputes, sota deals with domestic problems. Furthermore, not only is the kohen
involved on an individual level, but the dispute is resolved in the Mishkan
itself (see pasuk 16). Even Hashem's name is defiled and erased to
accommodate domestic tranquility:
"Great is tranquility between husband and wife, for the Torah has stated: The
name of Hakadosh Barukh Hu that is written in sanctity should be erased
into the water” (Chullin 141a).
The issue with which both sections, gezel ha-ger and sota, is
concerned, relates to our approach to man. The Torah recognizes the human
condition with all its frailties and limitations.
There is an acute awareness of the human economic struggle, which can
drive man to desperate acts. There
is an understanding of societal and psychological pressures, which can lead to
argument and violence. There is an appreciation of the passions and jealousies
that can complicate husband-wife relations. In the civil arena, as well as the
domestic one, man is vulnerable to the tensions and pressures inherent in human
The glorious vision of transforming a nation, any nation, into a "goy
kadosh" (holy nation) is blurred when we focus on man in his elementary
state. Nevertheless, this vision is not attained by denying the human condition,
but rather by redeeming it. Judaism
rejected the institution of the monastery, which separates the holy few from
society and removes them from the vulnerable state of unredeemed man. The Rambam
(Hilkhot Teshuva 3:6,11) lists one who removes himself from involvement
in society as one who has no portion in the World to Come. Paradoxically, Judaism clings to the
aspiration of "Goy Kadosh," without separation from society or denying
the human condition. How can this be
This dilemma is addressed, in my opinion, in Parashat Naso. Machane Yisrael is
being established in preparation for the journey from Sinai to Eretz Yisrael. Becoming a "goy kadosh” means
to aspire to the Sinaitic ideal, as it says:
In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land
of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai …
And Moshe went up unto God, and Hashem called unto him out of the mountain,
saying: “Thus shall you say to the house of Yaakov, and tell the children of
Israel … and you shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which you shall
speak unto the children of Israel. (Shemot 19:1-6).
Eretz Yisrael, on the other hand, represents the actual application and
realization of this vision. As we mentioned, Sefer Bamidbar begins with
the establishment of machane Yisrael, the context within which Bnei
Yisrael will attempt this monumental journey.
After the basic structure is set up and the details are treated, one
crucial issue remains. The machane is comprised of human beings, who
argue, steal and lust. How can this
machane realize the vision of Sinai?
The answer lies in the complex nature of the machane. There is actually a
machane within a machane.
At the center we find the divine camp, the machane ha-Shekhina,
containing the Mishkan and the Kohanim, which serve as a force of
sanctity and purity. Although this
camp enjoys a certain amount of separation and distance to nurture a spiritual
idea, it must not be totally cut off from the rest of the nation. The Kohanim are charged with
influencing and affecting machane Yisrael.
This allows machane Yisrael to achieve its goal while retaining
and redeeming its human character – not by negating it.
Situations of gezel ha-ger and sota will occur; civil and domestic
tensions are inherent to any human society. However, the Kohanim and the
Mishkan will deal with these issues by educating, influencing and
training. They will try to instill a
new set of values and re-adjust priorities. They will attempt to nurture and
inspire a “goy kadosh.”
IV. The Nazir Section
The juxtaposition of the nazir section immediately following the sota
segment was explained by our Sages:
Rebbi says: Why was the parasha of nazir placed adjacent
to the parasha of sota? In order to tell you that whoever sees a
sota in her humiliation should abstain from wine.
On the surface level, it seems that nazir really does not belong in
Bamibar at all; it was placed there only to be alongside sota.
However, based on our explanation of the location of the segments of gezel
ha-ger and sota, we might argue that there is an inherent connection
between nazir and the establishment of machane Yisrael. We suggested that segments of
gezel ha-ger and sota deal with machane Yisrael as a whole and
the role of the kohen in educating and influencing its members. Perhaps the nazir section
deals with the opposite phenomenon.
After all, Rebbi claimed that nazir is a result of seeing the humiliation
of a sota. Might the nazir
be a member of machane Yisrael who feels vulnerable when exposed to the
passions and pressures of normal society? Wasn't it this vulnerability that
motivated the famous nazir who came before Shimon the Righteous?
Shimon the Righteous said: In all my life, I never ate of the
guilt-offering of a nazir except in one instance. There was a man who
came to me from the South. He had
beautiful eyes and handsome features with his locks heaped into curls. I asked him, “Why, my son, did you
resolve to destroy this beautiful hair?" He answered, "In my native town, I was
my father's shepherd, and, upon going down to draw water from the well, I saw my
reflection. My urge leaped within me
and my evil inclination assailed me, seeking to cause my ruin, and so I said to
it: 'Empty one! Why are you proud over a world that is not your own? For your
end is but worms and maggots. I swear that I shall shear these locks to the
glory of Heaven!’” Then I rose and kissed him upon his head and said to him,
"May there be many nazirites such as you in Yisrael! Of one such as yourself does the
pasuk say, 'A man or a woman who shall pronounce a special vow of a nazir,
to consecrate themselves to Hashem.'"(Nedarim 9b).
The nazir is uncomfortable with his position as a member of machane
Yisrael, where he is exposed to passions and pressures typical of normal
society. He decides to consecrate himself to Hashem, choosing a path that is
similar to that of a kohen gadol. Just like a kohen gadol cannot
become tamei even if his father or mother passes away (see Vayikra
21: 11-12), the same is true of a nazir:
All the days that he consecrates himself unto Hashem he shall not come near to a
dead body. He shall not make himself
unclean for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister,
when they die. (Bamidbar 6:6-7).
Regarding both the nazir and the kohen gadol, the
Torah refers to a “nezer” (crown).
Apparently, the nazir
prefers the paradigm of the
kohen gadol, who resides within machane ha-Shekhina, removed from the
tensions and strife of machane Yisrael.
Again, we witness a halakhic parasha whose subject is the relationship of
the machanot. Due to certain pressures, the nazir tries to cross
the boundaries separating the various camps.
The Torah sanctions the institution of nazir, but only on an
individual basis, and only for a limited period of time.
In summary, the subdivisions that exist within machane Yisrael are not
meant to separate, but to elevate. Therefore, interaction between these various
sub-camps is essential. The three halakhic segments that we discussed, gezel
ha-ger, sota and nazir, all describe various aspects of the
interaction between the Kohanim and the machane Yisrael. The
section concludes with birkhat Kohanim, in which the Kohanim are
commanded to bless the people: “And you shall place My name on Bnei Yisrael
and I will bless them.”