the Wise and Etshalom families
in memory of Rabbi Aaron M. Wise, whose yahrzeit is 21 Tamuz.
Y'hi Zikhro Barukh.
By Rav Yair Kahn
I. The War Against Midian
In Parashat Matot, we once again encounter an exhaustive list of
seemingly trivial statistics. The Torah extensively details the spoils captured
in the war against Midian and then computes precisely how these spoils were
divided. We are given no more than a hint as to why these statistics are
important enough to have been included in the Torah and what message they
convey. In order to try to decipher this message, let us take a closer look at
the battle with Midian:
Moshe spoke to the people saying, "Let men be picked out from among you
for a campaign, and let them fall upon Midian to wreak Hashem's vengeance on
Midian. You shall dispatch to the
campaign a thousand men from each tribe of Yisrael." (Bamidbar 31:3-4)
decision to recruit one thousand men from each tribe reflects their
representative role, more than their military capacity. In other words, the army chosen to
attack Midian is perfectly balanced from a national perspective, although not
necessarily from a military one. This supports our thesis, developed in last
week's shiur, that the war's aim – namely, to attain "nikmat
Bnei Yisrael," the vengeance of Bnei Yisrael, which is also "nikmat
Hashem," the vengeance of God – is
achievable only if the people act as an organic whole, thus assuming their role
as a covenantal community. In fact,
we find that the representative army is complete and perfectly balanced upon
their victorious return from its war against Midian as well:
The commanders of the troop divisions, the officers of thousands and
the officers of hundreds, approached Moshe. They said to Moshe, "Your servants
have made a check of the warriors in our charge, and not one of us is missing."
Moreover, it seems that the significance the Torah attributes to the war with
Midian is rooted in the national agenda. The Torah downplays the military aspect
in its account of the war; after all, victory in a battle commanded by the
Almighty is a foregone conclusion. However, given the religious implications of
the totally one-sided campaign (see 31:48-50), it is surprising that the Torah
focuses specifically on the non-military aspect of the battle – the division of
the spoils between the twelve thousand soldiers who fought the Midianites and
between the remainder of the people who stayed in the camp.
The Seforno explains that the Torah is stressing that the entire nation enjoyed
the spoils of the Midianite war, due to the national character of the battle:
“And divide the booty equally” [between the combatants who engaged in
the campaign and the rest of the community] – Since the war was one of revenge
for what had been done to the entire nation, He desired that the pasuk,
"You shall devour your enemies' spoil," be fulfilled with regard to them all. (Seforno, Bamidbar 31:27)
The nation in its entirety battles the Midianites. One group, consisting of a
perfectly balanced representation of the tribal units, actually goes to war, but
the remainder of the nation must be involved as well. The sharing of the spoils
equally between the active participants and the rest of the nation is an
expression of the communal participation in the campaign. This was the practice
later adopted by David as well:
"...The share of those who remain with the baggage shall be the same as
the share of those who go down to battle; they shall share alike." So from that
day on it was made a fixed rule for Yisrael, continuing to the present day. (I Shmuel 30:24-25)
However, the detailed account of the respective percentages of the spoils that
were consecrated to God (perhaps referring to the kohanim; see Ramban)
and awarded to the Levites remains problematic. This seems to imply additional
significance to the communal emphasis.
I would suggest that the war with Midian not only required the
participation of the community as a whole, but also was instrumental in its
From this perspective, the battle is to be viewed as a concrete step in the
national formative process. It is
the inauguration of Knesset Yisrael as an organic religious communal
unit. In last week's shiur,
we noted the theoretical re-establishment of the community with its subdivisions
prior to the battle via the census. In our parasha, we witness the
various communal organs in action.
Aside from the harmonious contribution of the twelve tribes and the involvement
of the entire nation in the battle, the respective roles of the Levites and
Priests are activated as well. In
this trial run of the reestablished machane, we are also introduced to
Eliezer functioning as the high priest and Pinchas as the "mashuach milchama,"
the anointed priest charged with joining the army.
Within this context, the reference to the trumpets (31:6) is noteworthy. The only other time in the Torah that
they are mentioned is at the end of the first section of sefer Bamidbar
(ch.10), when Benei Yisrael are poised to begin the epic journey from
Sinai to Canaan. The nation is now
ready to complete the journey begun by their parents forty years earlier.
Following the victory against Midian, the Torah relates the request of the
tribes of Gad and Reuven to receive their portion in Eretz Yisrael from
the territories east of the
River, which had already
been conquered from Sichon and Og.
Their request is rejected by Moshe, who (remembering the sin of the spies)
wanted to ensure that there would be no weakness among the ranks that might lead
to a collapse of national resolve to conquer Eretz Yisrael. However, once
Gad and Reuven offer to leave their families east of the Yarden and lead the
Israeli forces in the military campaign against the Canaanite armies, Moshe
accepts their request.
So Moshe assigned to them –to the Gadites, the Reuvenites, and the half
tribe of the Menashe son of Yosef – the kingdom of Sichon king of the Amorites
and the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, the land with its various cities and the
territories of their surrounding towns.
inclusion of half of the tribe of Menashe is surprising, as there is no mention
that they joined Gad and Reuven in their request.
Why, then, did Moshe choose to place them east of the Yarden, despite his
negative attitude towards the appeal of Gad and Reuven?
closer look at the biblical description of this episode highlights additional
issues raised by the request of Gad and Reuven. The scriptural description of
the Reuven-Gad episode is quite redundant; following Moshe's initial protest,
Gad and Reuven propose a seemingly acceptable solution, which is repeated by
Moshe and then echoed by Gad and Reuven.
The commentators note that Moshe does not merely repeat the proposal, but rather
modifies it. In his response, Moshe
introduces a number of changes.
First of all, Moshe insists that Gad and Reuven be "armed before Hashem," while
the initial proposal had been to go "armed before Yisrael." It was important for
Moshe to emphasize the religious nature of the battle for Eretz Yisrael,
especially within the context of the request of Gad and Reuven (see Abarbanel).
Furthermore, in contrast to Gad and Reuven, who mention their flocks before
their children, Moshe switches the order and places the children first. The significance of the switch was
noted by Rashi:
"We will build here sheepfolds for our flocks" – They cared more about
their flocks than about their sons and daughters, for they mentioned their
flocks before their children. Moshe said to them: Not so; make significant what
is significant, and make insignificant what is insignificant. First build cities
for your children, and then build sheepfolds for your flocks.
In fact, the entire proposal of Gad and Reuven reflected a warped sense of
priorities. For the economic benefit
of better grazing land, they were prepared to leave their families for fourteen
years. The prolonged lack of paternal influence was clearly not in the best
interest of their families. Although
Moshe does not reject the proposal, he demands a reevaluation of the priorities
that it indicated.
Bnei Gad and Reuven appreciate and accept both of these corrections. They therefore repeat the proposal,
stressing the innovations imposed by Moshe:
The Gadites and the Reuvenites answered Moshe, "Your servants will do
as my master commands. Our children, our wives, our flocks, and all our other
livestock will stay behind in the towns of Gilad, while your servants, all those
recruited for war, will cross over before the Lord to engage in battle – as my
master orders." (Bamidbar 32:25-27)
However, Moshe introduced a third modification as well. Gad and Reuven had volunteered to
remain in Eretz Yisrael proper until the remaining tribes were settled in
the land. Moshe, on the other hand,
thought it sufficient that Gad and Reuven remain with the rest of the tribes
only until the end of the fighting.
The reason for Moshe's final modification is obvious. Benei Gad and Reuven were required to
participate in the battle against Canaan, and it was therefore sufficient that
they join the rest of the tribes only during the seven years of war. In fact, it
is difficult to understand why Gad and Reuven voluntarily agreed to remain on
the western side of the Yarden after the end of the military campaign.
Nevertheless, according to Rashi (32:24), the position of Gad and Reuven
ultimately prevailed in this matter. (Abarbanel disagrees with Rashi on this
III. Building a Bridge
glance at Sefer Yehoshua sheds light on this issue. When Yehoshua eventually allowed Gad
and Reuven to return to their families on the east bank, they built a large
altar on the banks of the Yarden.
The rest of Yisrael immediately perceived this act as mutinous, and civil war
A report reached the Israelites: "The Reuvenites, the Gadites, and the
half-tribe of Menashe have built an altar opposite the land of Canaan, in the
region of the Yarden, across from Yisrael." When Yisrael heard this, the whole
community of Yisrael assembled at Shilo to make war on them. (Yehoshua 22:11-12)
Pinchas headed a diplomatic mission to Benei Gad and Reuven aimed at avoiding
But [first] Yisrael sent the priest Pinchas son of Elazar to the
Reuvenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Menashe in the land of Gilad,
accompanied by ten chieftans, one chieftan from each ancestral house of each of
the tribes of Yisrael; they were every one of them heads of ancestral houses of
the contingents of Yisrael. (Yehoshua
Benei Gad and Reuven offered a revealing justification for building the altar:
We did this thing only out of our concern that, in time to come, your
children might say to our children, "What have you to do with Hashem the God of
Yisrael? Hashem has made the Yarden a boundary between you and us, O Reuvenite
and Gadites; you have no share in Hashem!" Thus, your children might prevent our
children from worshipping Hashem. So we decided to provide [a witness] for
ourselves by building an altar – not for burnt offering or [other] sacrifices,
but as a witness between you and us, and between the generations to come – that
we may perform the service of Hashem before Him with our burnt offerings, our
sacrifices, and our offerings of well-being; and that your children should not
say to our children in time to come, "You have no share in Hashem." (Yehoshua
the episode in Yehoshua we see that the natural geographic border separating the
two sides of the Yarden endangered the unity of Kenesset Yisrael. The
tribes on the west of the Yarden worried that Benei Gad and Reuven might break
away. For their part, Benei Gad and
Reuven were concerned that their national affiliation might, at some point, be
challenged by the majority of the nation residing west of the Yarden.
on this, it seems clear that Benei Gad and Reuven's decision to remain on the
west side of the Yarden until the rest of Yisrael was settled was as an act of
solidarity. They felt it was
improper to return to their portion and begin to develop it before the rest of
Yisrael received their estates. They
feared that such behavior could cause jealousy, which could lead to division. Although Moshe would have been
satisfied had Gad and Reuven returned to the east bank immediately after Canaan
was conquered, he appreciated the sensitivity displayed by their offer to remain
for an additional seven years. He
therefore accepted their proposal, despite the high price paid by the families
still waiting east of the Yarden.
Now we can also appreciate why Moshe chose to include half of the tribe of
Menashe east of the Yarden. Both in
the request of Tzelofchad's daughters (ch. 27) and in the counter-request of the
rest of the tribe (ch. 36), the tribe of Menashe is singled out in their concern
to attain and retain their portion in Eretz Yisrael. The actions of Makhir, Yair, and
Novach, members of the tribe of Menashe, attest to this attitude as well:
The descendents of Makhir son of Menashe went to Gilad and captured it,
dispossessing the Amorites who were there.
So Moshe gave Gilad to Makhir son of Menashe, and he settled there. Yair son of Menashe went and captured
their villages, which he renamed Chavvot Yair [the Villages of Yair]. And Novach
went and captured Kenat and its dependencies, renaming it Novach after himself. (Bamidbar 32:39-42)
In an attempt to connect the tribes east of the river with the rest of the
nation on the west, the tribe of Menashe, whose devotion to Eretz Yisrael
was unquestioned, was chosen to bridge the Yarden.
We began this shiur by analyzing the significance of the battle against
Midian. We tried to show how this
battle and its aftermath was instrumental in the formation and crystallization
of the religious national entity.
The detailed description of the division of the spoils of war is an expression
of the harmonious national state that Yisrael had reached.
The subsequent section of Gad and Reuven raises various issues. Among those issues is the threat to
unity posed by the natural barrier separating the nation, and this dilemma
thematically connects this episode to the beginning of the parasha. Two solutions are suggested to deal
with this problem. Gad and Reuven
commit to stay an additional seven years so as not to create tension by settling
their portion before the rest of the nation, and Moshe divides the tribe of
Menashe, forming a human bridge over the Yarden.
Ultimately, however, the question of unity will have to be played out by the
tribes themselves once settled in Eretz Yisrael. When studying the books
of the Nevi’im (Prophets), it is instructive to keep this issue in mind.